1. Camacho, P. MD, Reyan, K Exercise and Osteoporosis Endocrineweb 2009. This article correlates the adaptive responses of bone and muscular tissues as they respond to loading. Load bearing exercise builds and maintains healthy bones that are less prone to osteoporosis related fracture. mobility among frail residents of nursing homes up to 96 years of age.
  2. Heinonen, A., Kannus, P., Sievanen, H., Oja, P., Pasanen, M., Rinne, M., Uusi-Rasi, K. Randomized Controlled Trial of Effect of High-Impact Exercise on Selected Risk Factors for Osteoporotic Fractures The Lancet 1996, Nov; p 1343-1347. The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate, in premeno- pausal women, the effects of high-impact loading on several determinants of osteoporotic fractures.
  3. Kemmler, W., Lauber, D., Weineck, J., Hensen, J., Kalender, W., Engelke, K. Benefits of 2 Years of Intense Exercise on Bone Density, Physical Fitness, and Blood Lipids in Early Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1084-109. This study shows that early postmenopausal women can reduce bone mass loss by maximum strength type exercise.
  4. Kemmler, W., Engelke, K., von Stengel, S. Long-Term Four-Year Exercise Has a Positive Effect on Menopausal Risk Factors: The Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2007; p. 232-239. This study demonstrated that exercise stimulus using high loads has positive affect relevant to menopausal risk factors and, therefore, may be individually considered as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy.
  5. Kontulainen, S., Heinonen, A., Kannus, P., Passanen, M., Sievanen, H., Vuori, I. Former Exercisers of an 18-month Intervention Display Residual aBMD Benefits Compared with Control Women 3.5 years Post-Intervention: A Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled High-Impact Trial Osteoporosis International 2004, Mar; p 248-251. The findings of this study suggest that high-impact exercise has a long-term benefits in BMD for premenopausal women.
  6. Mayoux-Benhamou, M A., Leyge, J., Roux, C., Revel, M Cross-Sectional Study of Weight-Bearing Activity on Proximal Femur Bone Mineral Density Calcified Tissue International February, 1999; Volume 64, Number 2. The results of this study demonstrate the maximal loading effects over 5 years showing that those individuals that participated in this kind of activity had signifi- cantly higher BMD.
  7. Wang, Q., Alen, M., Nicholson, P., Suominem, H., Koistinen, A., Kroger, H., Cheng, S. Weight-Bearing, Muscle Loading and Bone Mineral Accrual in Pubertal Girls-A 2-Year Longitudinal Study Journal of the International Bone and Mineral Society 2007, May; 1196-1202. This study shows BMD gain as a result of impact training (maximal voluntary contraction) in pubertal female subjects.


  1. Capodagilo, P., Capodagilo, E., Faciolo, M., and Saibene, F. Long-term strength training for community-dwelling people over 75: impact on muscle function, functional ability and life style European Journal of Applied Physiology 2007, Jul; p 535-542. This study shows that the amount of habitual physical activity and live-span of both males and females over the age of 75 can be improved by engaging in high- intensity resistance loading of the body.
  2. Fisher, W., and White, M. Training-Induced Adaptations in the Central Command and Peripheral Reflex Components of the Pressor Response to Isometric Exercise of the Human Triceps Surae Journal of Physiology 1999, Oct; p 621-628. Conclusive evidence is shown in this study for a central nervous response in rela- tion to added function of one limb as a result of training to the other, in this case, non-trained limb.
  3. Miyaguchi, M., Kobayashi, A., Kadoya, Y., Ohashi, H., Yamano, Y., Takoaka, K. Biochemical Change in Joint Fluid After Isometric Quadriceps Exercise for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2003, Apr; p 252-259. This study shows isometric quadriceps exercise resulting in significant changes in joint fluid biochemical parameters, and these changes, at least in part, may explain the positive effect of muscle exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee.
  4. Topp, R., Wolley, S., Hornyak, J., Khuder, S., Kaheleh, B. The Effect of Dynamic Versus Isometric Resistance Training on Pain and Functioning Among Adults with Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2002, Sep; p 1187-1195. This study shows that dynamic or isometric resistance training improve functional ability and reduce knee joint pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study concludes that maximal loading of the body in exercise leads to significant gains in muscle strength, size, and functional mobility.


  1. Fiatarone, M., Marks, E., Ryan, N., Meredith, C., Lipsitz., Evans, W. High-Intensity Strength Training in Nonagenarians Effects on Skeletal Muscle The Journal of the American Medical Association 1990, Jun; p 3029-3031.
  2. Henwood, TR., Riek, S., and Taaffe DR. Strength Versus Muscle Power-Specific Resistance Training in Community- Dwelling Older Adults Journal of Gerontology 2008, Jan; p 83-91. Both strength and power improved in the subjects of this study using both dynamic and isometric modalities. Subjects used were independent adults ages 65 to 84 years old.

Other References

  1. Huck, C. & Jaquish, J. (2015). Functional bone performance measurements and adaptations using novel self-applied bone- loading exercise apparatus. Osteoporosis International. 26(1),s391s392,NS12.
  2. Jaquish, J. (2013). Multiple-of-bodyweight axial bone loading using novel exercise intervention with and without bisphosphonate use for osteogenic adaptation. Osteoporosis International. 198; 24(4), s594-s595.
  3. Mookerjee, S., & Ratamess, N. (1999). Comparison of strength differences and joint action durations between full and partial range-of-motion bench press exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,13(1), 76-81.
  4. Taaffe, D. R., Robinson, T. L., Snow, C. M., & Marcus, R. (1997). High-Impact Exercise Promotes Bone Gain in Well-Trained Female Athletes. Journal of bone and mineral research, 12(2), 255260.