Bone Density Research Summary

In 2012, a study was published that showed that subjects had to experience at least 4.2 times their body weight in order to trigger the growth of healthy new bone tissue.  At OsteoStrong, members easily experience 4 to 10 times their own bodyweight without injury or pain, triggering the development of healthy new bone tissue according to the 2012 study.

 

One year of treatment with a postmenopausal population, using various methods recommended by physicians:

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Supporting data:

Non active lifestyle, no supplements

In 2003, the New England Journal of Medicine published an article which established that after the onset of menopause, females may lose 1.9% of their bone mass density per year[3].

No activity w/ Calcium and vitamin D, abbreviated: (C&vD)

A compiled analysis of 29, all randomized trials found supplementation with calcium and vitamin D was able to slow bone density loss between the hip and spine over the course of a year by half of the standard amount of loss given the other variables in an individual's life[4].

Walking + C&vD

A compiled analysis of 8 studies found brisk walking type exercise showed no bone density gain between the hip and spine over the course of a year[5].

Whole Body Vibration + C&vD

A compiled analysis of 18 studies found whole body vibration (WBV) showed no bone density gain between the hip and spine over the course of a year, but positive implications were seen with activation of muscle, and help with balance and proper movement[6].

Weight Bearing Exercise + C&vD

A compiled analysis of 62 studies found weight bearing exercise showed an average of 1% bone density gain between the hip and spine over the course of a year[7].

Bisphosphonate Drugs + C&vD

Bisphosphonate drugs like Boniva, Actonel, and Fosamax which are the standard of care can show an average of 1.6% bone density gain between the hip and spine.  Side effects include increased cancer risk for those who have risk factors. Side effects include risks of abnormal bone fractures and dissolving of the human jaw. Learn more by discussing these drugs with your physician[8].

Bone Anabolic Drugs + C&vD

Forteo is a bone anabolic, which has shown an average of 6.15% bone density gain between the hip and spine. Side effects can potentially include increased cancer risk for those who have risk factors. As this drug is newer, much is still to be learned. This drug is only prescribed for patients at high risk of fracture, and patients have to be monitored closely for adverse effects. Learn more by discussing these drugs with your physician[9][10].

Osteogenic Loading

The use of osteogenic devices has shown promising results. Though there are only 4 studies on the specific application of osteogenic loading devices, the underlying principal is one of the most fundamental of human physiology (mechanotransduction as discussed earlier) and as loads seen with osteogenic use are far beyond the minimum established trigger for building bone, the results seen are beyond that of other treatments. Bone density has been shown to improve 7.34% between the spine and hip results over one year of treatment[11]. Further, Hunte and researchers found bone density gains of over 14% after 6 months of treatment[12]. Further research shows statistical congruency with a larger sample (n=2300) for functional bone performance gains and BMD[13].

Sources:

[1] Forwood, M. & Burr, D. (1993). Physical activity and bone mass: exercises in futility? Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. May;21(2):89-112.

[2] Tobias, J. H., Gould, V., Brunton, L., Deere, K., Rittweger, J., Lipperts, M., & Grimm, B. (2014). Physical activity and bone: may the force be with you. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5.

[3] Ahlborg, H. G., Johnell, O., Turner, C. H., Rannevik, G., & Karlsson, M. K. (2003). Bone loss and bone size after menopause. New England Journal of Medicine, 349(4), 327-334.

[4] Tang, B. M., Eslick, G. D., Nowson, C., Smith, C., & Bensoussan, A. (2007). Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis. The Lancet, 370(9588), 657-666.

[5] Lau, R. W., Liao, L. R., Yu, F., Teo, T., Chung, R. C., & Pang, M. Y. (2011). The effects of whole body vibration therapy on bone mineral density and leg muscle strength in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Rehabilitation, 25(11), 975-988.

[6] Martyn-St James, M., & Carroll, S. (2008). Meta-analysis of walking for preservation of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Bone, 43(3), 521-531.

[7] Wolff, I., Van Croonenborg, J. J., Kemper, H. C. G., Kostense, P. J., & Twisk, J. W. R. (1999). The effect of exercise training programs on bone mass: a meta-analysis of published controlled trials in pre-and postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International, 9(1), 1-12.

[8] BONIVA® (ibandronate sodium) INJECTION. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov (Reference ID: 2895743)

[9] FORTEO® teriparatide (rDNA origin) injection 750 mcg/3 mL. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov (Reference ID: PA 9244FSAMP)

[10] Berg, C., Neumeyer, K., & Kirkpatrick, P. (2003). Teriparatide. Nature reviews Drug discovery, 2(4), 257-258.

[11] Jaquish, J. (2013). Multiple-of-bodyweight axial bone loading using novel exercise intervention with and without bisphosphonate use for osteogenic adaptation. Osteoporosis International. 198; 24(4), s594-s595.

[12] Hunte, B., Jaquish, J., & Huck, C. (2015). Axial Bone Osteogenic Loading-Type Resistance Therapy Showing BMD and Functional Bone Performance Musculoskeletal Adaptation Over 24 Weeks with Postmenopausal Female Subjects. Journal of Osteoporosis & Physical Activity, 3(146), 2.

[13] Huck, C. & Jaquish, J. (2015). Functional bone performance measurements and adaptations using novel self-applied bone-loading exercise apparatus. Osteoporosis International. 26(1),s391-s392,NS12.

More About Osteoporosis

Perhaps you have never heard of Osteoporosis, have recently been diagnosed, or have a friend or family member who has Osteoporosis, but you are not quite sure what it is. Here is a brief overview.

Osteoporosis is a condition of the bones specific to their density. It occurs when you lose too much bone and/or make too little bone. As a result, your bones become weak and may break from a fall. About 54 million Americans have low bone mass, which means they are at increased risk for Osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis actually means “porous bone.” If you look at healthy bone under a microscope, you'll see that parts of it look like a honeycomb. If you have osteoporosis, the holes and spaces in the honeycomb are bigger than they are in healthy bone. Many people age 50 or older make a decision to have a bone density test.

Use the arrows above to see before and after.

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